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WebAssembly / Tables and Dynamic Linking

Posted On 01.26.2022

Table is another shared instance in WebAssembly just like Linear Memory, but it can only store function references. It can be shared between modules, and all you can do with tables is to make indirect function calls to the functions references stored in that table.

This feature allows you to implement dynamic linking, we can have a shared module that provides some functionalities that can be called from different modules.

For example, let’s create a shared Table and pass this table into two different modules. In one module, we create a function called add and store this function’s reference to the shared table. And then, call this add method from another module.

First, let’s write the first module, since the table is imported from JavaScript, we are going to use the import segment to create the table:


    (import "js" "table" (table 1 anyfunc))
    (func $add (param $a i32) (param $b i32) (result i32)
        get_local $a
        get_local $b
    (elem (i32.const 0) $add)

After defining the function $add, we store it to the offset 0 of the table with the elem instruction.

Next, we create another module, also use the imported table from JavaScript, and use call_indirect instruction to call the function at offset 0 of the table:


    (import "js" "table" (table 1 anyfunc))
    (type $t0 (func (param $a i32) (param $b i32) (result i32)))
    (func (export "add_five") (param $x i32) (result i32)
        (call_indirect (type $t0) (get_local $x) (i32.const 5) (i32.const 0))

Note that, we need to define the type $t0 so call_indirect will have the information of what’s the function call looks like.

Finally, let’s build these modules with wat2wasm, create a JavaScript application, define a shared table and load the two modules:

const fs = require('fs');
const createInstance = async (path, importObj) => {
    const wasmSource = fs.readFileSync(path);
    const wasmBuffer = new Uint8Array(wasmSource);
    const wasm = await WebAssembly.instantiate(wasmBuffer, importObj);
    return wasm.instance;
const importObj = {
    js: {
        table: new WebAssembly.Table({ initial: 1, element: "anyfunc" })
    createInstance("math.wasm", importObj),
    createInstance("calc.wasm", importObj)
]).then(instances => {
    // get ready

The Promise.all returned two instance in an instances array, one for the math.wasm module and another one for the calc.wasm module. We only need to use the instance of calc.

Calling add_five from calc‘s instance, WASM will make the call to add function from the math module, and return the result:

const instance = instances[1];
const result = instance.exports.add_five(10);
// result = 15

If we are not loading the module.wasm, and still trying to make a call to add_five, the error will occur when WASM tries to call the add method:

RuntimeError: null function or function signature mismatch
    at wasm://wasm/7396aa4e:wasm-function[0]:0x43